In the case of node mobility, the node usually changes the network connectivity while continuous movement to access the neighboring infrastructure. For instance: A laptop can access both Cellular and WLAN technologies for internet usage. Here, cellular technology provides ubiquitous coverage and WLAN provides high-speed accessibility. So, the device/user equipment (UEs) uses cellular technology only in the absence of WLAN connectivity. From this article, you can grasp technical skills about vertical handover projects with current research areas!!!
Overview of Vertical Handover
In general, the tightly coupled network architecture supports vertical handover protocol. By employing this architecture, one can execute the vertical handover in the link layer to minimize the handover delays. While simulation the seamless vertical handover is expected to execute in milliseconds of limited times. Since a greater number of vertical handovers will end up in high usage of bandwidth.
Though vertical handover may have the threat of high bandwidth, it supports lower costs for WLAN technologies in high speed and cellular technologies in a large coverage. Overall, vertical handover is useful for mobiles nodes to their network without affecting performance. And, the other name of Vertical handover is the vertical handoff. Here, we have given a list of technical information like triggering factors, limitations, data collection metrics, and performance metrics for vertical handover.
Vertical Handover Technical Aspects
- Influencing Factors of Vertical Handover
- Path loss
- Data Transfer Rate
- Mode of Hopping
- Speed of Mobile Node
- Prediction of Channel Condition
- User priority
- Vertical Handover Restriction
- Limitation of RF reconfiguration
- Network Handover (Unlicensed / Licensed)
- Access point Handover
- Network Handover
- Direct Channel Usage
- Vertical Handover Data Gathering Metrics
- Strength of Received Signals
- Channel Data
- Mobile Node Movement
- Traffic / Congestion State
- Mobile Node Movement
- Performance Metrics of Vertical Metrics
- Network Connectivity
- Energy and Bandwidth Usage
- Delay of Vertical Handover
- Probability of Blocking
- Data Rate
Types of Vertical Handover
Basically, the handovers are classified into soft and hard handover types. Also, handovers are performed in two aspects as intra-cell and inter-cell.
- On the one hand, soft handover has the working principle of MAKE-BEFORE-BREAK. That is, it creates the new connection first and then breaks the previous one.
- On the other hand, hard handover has the working principle of BREAK-BEFORE-MAKE. That is, it breaks the connection first and then creates a new connection.
Further, we have also included the various techniques that enhance the functionalities of vertical handover in real-world scenarios.
Different Types of techniques for vertical handover
- Mobility based handover
- Network controlled handover
- Portable device based handover
Next, we can see the parameters that need to consider while taking a decision on handover. By considering these parameters, we can perform the optimal network handover process and also improve the performance of handover without delay. So, if you design the handover techniques follow below the parameters for effective decision making. Further, we also assist you to choose appropriate parameters that are well-suited for your project’s requirements.
Simulation Parameters for Vertical Handover
- Service-based Power Usage
- Handover Delay
- User Preference
- Network Load / Capacity
- Signal Strength (at destination)
- Service-based Cost
In cellular-based heterogeneous networks, the major threat to seamless services is vertical handover. Therefore, it is a must to create precaution measures to reduce the number of handovers. For this purpose, some effective features are needed to consider to design reliable handovers. Most importantly, the handover decisions are taken based on a few metrics such as velocity, bandwidth, connection duration, RSS, power, security, user preference, and cost. Further, we have also given listed the features that we focus on vertical handover projects.
Key Features of Vertical Handover
- Traffic Offloading
- Stabilize the load in the network cells
- Minimize the probability of call blocking
- Reduce and prevent interruption in algorithm execution
- Once handover finished, ensure Good quality of Call
- Measure by BER, SINR, etc.
- High Performance
- Reduce the total number of handovers
- Seamless Node Mobility
- Manage fast and free mobility of nodes without disruption
Next, we can see the major research challenges/issues on developing vertical handover projects. If the vertical handover design is not effectively performed then the following issues have a high probability to occur. So, these fundamental issues need to be solved in the designing phase itself. Our researchers have thoroughly analyzed the situation and prepared effective solutions to crack these issues. Once you make a contact with us, we let you know all the suitable research solutions for any kind of complicated research issue.
Research Issues in Vertical Handover
- Huge Network Traffic due to Unnecessary Handover
- Long-extensive Distance of Base Station from User (Cell)
- Inappropriate Handover Design in Specific Areas
- New frequency of Base Station for User Migration
- Fast RSS Fall / Rise due to Numerous Handovers among Base Stations
For your information, our technical experts have shared the basic procedure for implementing vertical handover techniques/algorithms. This procedure clearly points out the sequential functions of the handover operation which starts from measurement configuration and ends with handover completion. Sometimes, the procedure may vary based on the selected handover techniques and functional requirements of the project.
Vertical Handover Simulation Procedure
- Measurement Configuration (eNB to UE)
- Addresses the measurements of UE for execution
- Measurement Report (UE to eNB)
- Signifies the outcomes of measurement
- Decision over Handover
- Take effective decisions for handover types (S1 / X2) and target cells
- Handover Preparation, Execution, and Completion (differ by type)
- Design forwarding route
- Forward the packets over-designed route
- Changeover the data route
In the existing handover techniques, the functionalities of handover are slow in execution. Also, they are ineffective to manage heavy traffic and often create more handovers. Therefore, the demands of new techniques have increased to cope with modern networking. To solve all those problems, we need to make powerful handover techniques that reduce the handover latency and the number of attempts. In the following, we have bulletined the few widely used techniques that focus on performance parameters of vertical handover.
Research Ideas in Vertical Handover
- SINR-assisted Velocity
- RSS based Technique
- Pilot Signal to Interference
- Back-off Latency Valuation
- User Preference
- Services related to video, text, etc.
- The length among Base Stations
Next, we can see the fundamental criteria for vertical handover in the aspects of user-based, terminal-based, service-based, and network-based handovers. Based on these criteria, we can maintain the high-performance handover in any kind of wireless heterogeneous network. We assure you that we take an account of the following criteria in our vertical handover projects implementation. Further, if you want to know other important criteria then approach our team. We will make you realize the importance of criteria in your handpicked vertical handover project.
Criteria Used for Vertical Handover in Wireless Networks
- User Preference and Profile
- Mobility Speed
- Node Position
- Channel Handiness
- Node Distance
- Communication Power
- Quality of Service
- Quality of Traffic
- Quality of Experience
In heterogeneous networks, the mobile nodes move from one network to other. At that time, we need to maintain the QoS and seamless connectivity. In order to achieve these requirements, best-result yielding vertical handover techniques are needed to design. To reach high QoS levels, the VHO decisions need to take fast and precise. Further, here we have given the list of algorithms that play a major role in satisfying these needs of VHO. In specific, we also give you precise guidance in selecting algorithms depending on the needs of vertical handover projects.
Algorithms for Vertical Handover Heterogeneous Network Projects
- Neural Network
- FIS-ENN Model
- Enhanced MADM
- SAW, etc.
- Reinforcement Learning
- Deep Q-learning, etc.
- Decision Making Algorithms
- Weighted Fuzzy, etc.
- Meta-Heuristic Algorithms
- Genetic Algorithm
- Particle Swarm Optimization, etc.
- Fuzzy Logics with MPTCP
- Multi-Attribute GA algorithm
- QoE and Location-Aware Smart Handover
- Analytical Hierarchy Practice (deviation weighting)
- And many more
So far, we have discussed the vertical handover fundamentals, overview, technical aspects, handover types, techniques types, decision parameters, key features, research issues, execution procedure, new methods, basic criteria, and algorithms. We hope that you are clear in all this technical information of vertical handover which is very essential for designing and developing vertical handover projects.Now, we can see the latest research areas that attract research interested people particularly in the field of wireless networks which have high node mobility. In order to support you with up-to-date research, we have collected the vast scientific advancements and research improvements in handover technologies. Also, our research topics are surely in the direction of current and future research. Here, we have given you the list of research areas that provide you with an extensive platform to collect innovative research topics for vertical handover projects.
Research Areas in Vertical Handover
- 5G enabled Cellular Networks
- Mobile RF in Optical Networks
- HetNets based Low-Power WAN
- Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)
- Heterogeneous Radio-Optical Networks
- SDN based Wireless Heterogeneous Networks
Further, if you are looking for other interesting research areas and project topics in the vertical handover research field then communicate with us. Our experts give friendly step-by-step assistance in your whole research journey. We will be with you from the step of interested area selection to the step of thesis/dissertation acceptance under the supervision of our field experts. Particularly, we are unique from others in the aspect of top-quality research guidance in vertical handover projects. So, utilize this opportunity to create the masterpiece of your research in your academic career.