The term embedded system refers to the mechanism of a microcontroller & microprocessor in which software and hardware are performing their significant functionalities. As well as they are contributing their indispensable features in both software and hardware by their major elements. If you are searching for an article with PhD topics in embedded systems, then we are appreciating your navigation! You’ve enrooted to the exact handout!
At the end of this article, you would get all the relevant particulars about embedded systems with crystal clear explanations. The main objective of bringing this article is to cut out the ambiguities of students in embedded systems. Initially, our academics of the institute have lighted up this handout with the introduction of embedded systems.
Introduction of Embedded Systems
An embedded system requires both a microcontroller & microprocessor in which they are performing. It is the mutual amalgamation of software & hardware. Peripheral hardware entities are the inclusion of memory, display, I/O interfaces, and user interfaces.
The complete embedded system has consisted of ports, timers, high-end processors & power supply. On the other hand, it has unique features and it is mainly known for those.
- Operation Range
- Smaller Size
- Minimized Unit Costs
- Less Power Ingestion or Consumption
These are the major and significant features of embedded systems. There are so many concepts getting involved in the embedded systems. Among those, we would like to at least mention the main concepts of the same for the ease of your understanding.
- Robotics Models
- Decision oriented Controlling Mechanism
- BioSignature Evaluations
- Remote Control Devices
- Security Devices & Models
How Does Embedded Systems work actually?
Former embedded systems were supported with the microprocessors whereas newfangled embedded systems are supported by the microcontrollers. For example, embedded radios are using microcontroller apps. We are using so many embedded devices in real-time and they are almost accessible at every user level.
Even smart homes are using embedded systems in the form of washing machines, micro ovens, and many other computerized devices. Besides, healthcare also makes use of the embedded system as health monitoring equipment such as pacemakers, scanners, digital surgery aiding monitors, and heartbeat & blood pressure checking mechanisms.
Embedded systems are often called irreplaceable technology. Doing research in these areas would abundantly yield marvelous outcomes. Now, we can have the section which is about major elements of embedded systems.
Major Elements of Embedded Systems
- It is comparing the final output of D-A converters with the actual output and warehouses the approved output
- Digital to Analog Converter
- D-A converts the processor’s digital data into the form of analog data
- Analog to Digital Converter
- A-D converts the sensor’s analog signal into the form of a digital signal
- Here, processors interpret the data to evaluate output and warehouse the same
- Reads peripheral quantity of an object and converts it into an electrical signal
- Further allows other devices to recognize the electrical signals emitted
- It is warehousing the measured quantity into the memory
The aforementioned are the 4 major elements comprised in the embedded systems or technology. On the other hand, these elements are elevating the performance by accommodating the various application areas in real-time. Yes, we are going to let you know the different applications of embedded systems for making your understanding easy.
What are the Different Applications of Embedded System?
- Aircraft Power & Control Applications
- Movement Control in Longitudinal
- Energy Control in Lambregts
- Thermal Anti-icing Models
- Turboprop Powered Mechanisms
- Automated Electrical Utilities
- Chargeable E-vehicles
- Multi-agent Devices
- Substation Maintenance
- Innovated Modern Homes
- Industrial based Motor Drives
- Demagnetization Errors
- Electrical Bow Thruster
- The converter of Energy Recovery
- Sensor-less BLDC
- Other Common Applications
- E-Commerce in Mobile Phones
- Cellular Networking & Computing
- Wireless Communications
- Automation in assembly lines
- Multimedia Adaptation in Cars
- Motor Engine Safety
- Driving Control System
These are the different and dynamic application areas in which embedded systems are performing under various complexities. However, every technology has some barriers to means of execution. For example, every technology is a stack of security challenges. Likewise, embedded systems are also presented with some major challenges and they are mentioned in the following section to make your understanding better.
What are the Challenges of Embedded System?
- IoT Hardware Designing Challenges
- Testing Complexities
- Increased Power Indulgence
- Rigidity in Application Running
- Software Designing Challenges
- Lack of Performance Management
- Small Scale Factors
- Reduced Energy Levels
- Security Challenges
- Low-Security Levels in IoT
- Safety Challenges
- SDLC High Requirements
- Testing Constraints
- Quality Compromises
- Stability Challenges
- Unstructured Behaviors
- Lack of Uniformity in Behaviors
For many more decades, the challenge of designing software is being existed till now. Many end-users of embedded systems aspire to have high-performance processors and battery life for a long time. So the system fails here. As security is one of the major issues in embedded systems, developers are focused to enhance the same by utilizing various technical experiments.
SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) highly requires the exact utilities to perform. Every embedded system is not compatible with unnatural system behaviors. On the other hand, the user of this system requires constant behaviors even under various conditions or environments. Now, we can have general solutions to some of the challenges.
Solutions for Embedded System Challenges
FPGA is one of the interesting logic used and integrated into the embedded technology. It is also known as the substitute for ASIC fabrics. FPGA logic is widely aided with custom logic which is modeled after the manufacturing processes.
Many developers are treating this approach as the best tactic to customize the software components. Researchers are making use of many more toolkits and toolboxes to evaluate FPGA systems’ performance and their components in a multiprocessor. For instance, sensor networks are the greatest examples of FPGA-based embedded systems.
In short, embedded systems’ challenges can be raided by FPGA logic. Embedded systems are classified into 2 different categories based on their functional requirement & performance. Come, let’s have the taxonomies section.
Taxonomies of Embedded System
- Microcontroller based Performance Taxonomy
- Refined or Sophisticated Scale
- Medium or Average Scale
- Small Scale
- Functional & Performance-based Taxonomy
- Mobile Networks
- Standalone Devices
- Real-time Applications
This is how the embedded system is categorized according to the 2 different parameters. Do you know something, embedded systems are widely supported in every phase of technology by their indispensable operations? Some of the popular operational areas of embedded systems are discussed in the immediate section for ease of your understanding.
Operational Areas of Embedded Systems
Thermal-Aware & Low Power Consumption
The advancement in the nano-CMOS scaling technology caused the power consumption rates to be higher. So the reason behind elevating power chip temperatures is because of this high power consumption.
Scaling technology is crossing the determined limits hence it is resulting in scaling discontinuation. TDP is one of the conventional thermal power budgets. Further, developers have shown their effort in the former budgets to bring out the novel budget called TSP (Thermal Safe Power).
TSP is providing the power limit values safely according to the major operations. Systems performance is being examined under various conditions. One is temperature limitations such as dark silicon which is stimulated the researchers to execute the newfangled resource managing techniques by exploring the system properties.
Cybersecurity in Embedded Systems
In this process, the system is focused on shielding the confidentiality levels in reconfigurable systems which are embedded. Along with this, they are also concentrated on preventing the embedded systems from data losses.
As many cyber crooks are trying to steal data, it is very important to prevent the network with cyber security techniques. Cyber attackers are very much intellectual in stealing data and they are interpreting the network with a various number of attacks.
A side-channel attack is one of the most vulnerable attacks which can make the data leak. The data transmitted from one tunnel to another tunnel may be sensitive or non-sensitive and even neither encrypted nor unencrypted.
Resource-constrained Machine Learning
According to the modernization of IoT, automated devices such as supercomputers highly have the chance to interact with other possible devices. On the other hand, they are limited to storage, power & energy consumption.
However, machine learning-based algorithms are allowing the system to progress with high-end inputs like sensors, videos & images. In this regard, we would also like to enlighten the advantages of embedded systems for your better understanding.
- Enhanced Process Quality
- Operationally Fast & Smart Portability
- Low Power Consumption
- High Reliability
- Effective Mass Fabrication
These are the few advantages of having embedded systems in general. Apart from this, there are uncountable merits are exist. If you do want further details about embedded systems, feel free to approach our researchers at any time. We are very delighted to serve utilizing technology. Further, it is the right time to know about the research areas in embedded systems.
Research Areas in Embedded Systems
- Robotics & Automation
- GPS based Location Tracking
- Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) & Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
- Raspberry Pi
- Internet of Things (IoT)
- Video Communication Software
- Wireless Communication Networks
- Fiber Optical Sensor Mechanisms
- Photonic Elements
- Photonic Methods & Networks
The foregoing passage has conveyed to you several possible research areas based on an embedded system. Additionally, you can begin to work on the above-listed research areas. As this article is mainly focused on giving PhD topics in embedded systems, here we are going to state to you the top 10 topics for your valuable consideration.
Top 10 PhD Research Topics in Embedded Systems
1. Particle Swarm Optimization & Historical Archives based Distributed Virtual Network
2. Integrated Edge Computing & Pedestrian Detection Systems
3. Real-Time Embedded System Learning & Virtual Engineering
4. Multi-Core Embedded Systems with Guaranteed Inter or Intra-Core Communication Techniques
5. Embedded Systems using Laboratory Course Designs
6. Combination of FPGA & RASA Approaches in Risky Environs
7. Generation of Embedded Software Evaluation Construction
8. Standardized Embedded Systems by Neuro-Fuzzy Approaches
9. Airborne Embedded System’s Performance Estimation by GPU (Workload-Aware)
10. Multiprocessor Embedded Systems Simulation & Testing on Sync Issues
In the foregoing section, we have used some acronyms and we felt that mentioning the abbreviation for that will help the beginners. Come; let us also have the quick insights on it.
· RASA – Reliability Aware Scheduling Approach
- FPGA – Field Programmable Gateway Array
As of now, we have brainstormed in the major areas of embedded systems ranging from overview to top 10 PhD topics in embedded systems with clear explanations. As many of the students from all over the world is hitting our digital platforms to put an article in the areas of embedded system with their recent trends, we are here going to let you know the same.
Recent Trends in Embedded Systems
- Deep Learning
- Mesh Networking
- Cloud Systems
- Embedded Security Devices
- Reduced Energy Consumptions
- IoT(s)-Internet of Things
- Machine Learning
- Augmented & Virtual Reality
- Artificial Intelligence
Machine learning and artificial intelligence are the major technologies involved in the significant progress of embedded technology. As artificial intelligence is widely used in every stage of digital technology, it is also pillaring the embedded systems indispensably.
Many of the average end-users also expect the technologies’ gigantic growth. This could only be possible by accommodating different kinds of algorithms according to the necessities. Yes, you people guess right! We are exactly going to tell you the various algorithms used in the embedded system for the ease of your understanding.
Different Algorithms used in Embedded Systems
- FPGA & ISFET – PH Level Meter
- CMOS – SEU Latch
- MOSFET – Double-Gate based Cylindrical Surrounding
- ADC & CMOS – Hybrid Data Converters
- Pin Diodes – Buck Converters
- Piezoelectric Transducer – Energy Harvesting Circuit
- CMOS – Sensor aided Streaming or Floating Gate
- DC To DC Converter – Dynamic Bias PFM
- nMOSFET & pMOSFET – Body Bias Optimization
These are some of the protocols being involved in the process of embedded systems. Without these algorithms, we are not supposed to yield the best results. On the other hand, we need to consider the protocols practiced for communication in embedded technology.
Communication channels among the different components are established by intra protocols inside the electric circuit boards. Besides, it is increasing the possibility to add other components that are connected to microcontrollers. Intra-system communication protocols are often called device communication protocols.
The embedding system is giving much importance to the communication protocols as it is the only medium to transmit data packets from one end to another end. Now, we can have further discussions about the other protocols in embedded systems with clear explanations.
What are the Protocols in Embedded Systems?
- RS-485 Protocol
RS-485 is the major protocol that can connect the external devices and microcontrollers effectively. This protocol is permitting the device to utilize identical user interfaces for exchanging data. It has consisted of 4 major pins called,
- Universal Serial Bus (USB) Protocol
USB protocol is widely used in every phase of technology to exchange data. In other words, it is the improved protocol for digital communication. Whenever a device connects to the network or host, the host or network will assign an IP address to that device utilizing performing communication. They are also using 4 major pins as mentioned below,
- D- – Data Receiving in Differential Line Pin
- D+ – Data Transferring in Differential Line Pin
- GND – Circuit Closing Pin
- VCC – Power Supply Pin
- Control Area Network (CAN) Protocol
This protocol is introduced to reduce the complexities in cabling and connectivity between the interfaces. Primarily, it is used in the automobile industry to reduce the ethernet cables in the devices such as engines, motors, AC, and so on.
Data transmitted over the CAN protocols are making the data available in every node connected to that bus topography. There are 2 types of CAN protocols that are used Extended CAN & Standard CAN. In addition, this protocol is utilizing the 2 main ethernet cables to communicate among other CAN peripheral devices like,
- CAN Low
- CAN High
- Universal Synchronous / Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (USART) Protocol
Communication modes such as half-duplex, full-duplex, and simplex are supported by the USART protocols which are serial protocols. Every microcontroller is presented with USART protocol and they are using the 2 pins called,
- TX – Transmits outgoing data (sender side)
- RX – Receives incoming data (receiver side)
- Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) Protocol
I2C is the twisted wire-based communication protocol and is exactly interconnected with 2 cables which are widely integrated with the low processing devices such as input or output devices, digital converters, analog converters, and microcontrollers.
They are compatible with the data speed ranging from 100 Kbit/s to 400 Kbit/s. This is based on the type and mode of operation held. On the other hand, I2C protocols are using the 2 major pins for establishing communication,
- Serial Clock Line (SCL)
- Serial Data Line (SDA)
- Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Protocol
SPI is the only duplex protocol that makes use of the slave configuration for establishing a communication channel between the sender and receiver. Besides, it is widely utilized in the areas of microcontroller interfaces such as LCD & EEPROM displays. Further, it is mainly comprised of 4 major pins called,
- Slave Select (SS) – Master Selects Slaves
- Master Input Slave Output (MISO) – Slave Output Data
- Master Output Slave Input (MOSI) – Master Output Data
- Serial Clock (SCLK) – Data Transmission by Clock Source
These are the various protocols used to establish communication among various users of the network. If you are a person with aspirations in embedded systems, then you can begin to investigate the protocols and other entities used in the same system.
Besides, you can also avail our assistance to make the explorations better. Now, our researchers of the institute have listed you some of the simulation modules which are highly beneficial to the embedded systems in general. Shall we get into that? Come on!!!
Simulation Modules of Embedded Systems
- Error Correction & Speech Encoding Design
- E-Vehicles & allied Transport Systems
- Satellite-based Power Systems
- 3 Phase Electric Mechanisms
- Automation in Controlling System
- Transmission using Relay
- MEMS-based Accelerometer
- Distribution Generation Structure
- Grid Models & Battery Maintenance
- Conversion of Power Controls
- Motor Management
The foregoing area has significantly enumerated to you some of the interesting simulation modules of embedded technology. It is also important to make note of the different software well-suited for the embedded system. Don’t you know about that? Don’t worry!! We are also going to highlight the same for your fine considerations.
Which Software is best for Embedded systems?
- ARM Keil
- Visual Studio
The above listed are the various software used to develop embedded systems in real-time. In that, ARM Keil is offering a wide range of environ for generating embedded systems in ARM-oriented peripheral devices. Verilog HDL is the hardware-based description language as well as C is widely used as the programming language in embedded systems.
In addition to these sections, ultimately we need to consider the performance of embedded systems. For this, there are several metrics are predefined by top world-class engineers. Without knowing the efficacy of systems performance, we cannot run a proper embedded system. Hence, it is very essential to consider the performance metrics. Some of them are listed in the immediate section.
List of Embedded System’s Performance Metrics
- Response Time – It is the time taken for responding to events
- Start Time – This is the time, in which a response is given & event starts
- Finish Time – It is the end closure of the event
Itemized above are the major performance metrics taken into account while evaluating the system’s performance. As this technology is moving to rapid growth, there is a huge opportunity even in the embedded technologies. Many scopes are nuzzled with the embedded systems. Yes, we are also going to have a look at future directions of embedded systems.
Future Research Directions of Embedded Systems
- Artificial Intelligence based Software & Hardware
- Energy-Constrained Embedded Systems
- Enhanced Security Levels in Embedded Systems
- Edge Computing in Embedded High-end Processes
Embedded systems are the only source of artificial intelligence as it has the weightage in every stage of technology. The combination of hardware and software of embedded systems is focused to give the best solutions to some of the challenges that arouse such as system consistency, safety, and security measures.
As well as they are effectively handling the sensitive data exposed in human-controlled environments. They are also known for their critical situation tolerance capacities and they are performing self-driven testing & validations. In short, it is aimed to offer better scalability compared to the current state.
So far, we had gone through the various areas of embedded technology with newfangled fine facts. As the technology is exposing more opportunities to research, we are appreciating your effort in reading this article along with this we are cordially wishing you, people, to grab the success fruits in embedded technology. If you require any assistance in embedded system research work and phd topics in electronics and communication, we are always there to help you.
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